Few randomized clinical trials have been done to assess clinical prediction rules for patients with lower back pain, and the trials that have been done are of low quality and do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use.
The presence of retrolisthesis in patients undergoing decompressive surgery for a lumbar disc herniation may result in significantly worse lower back pain and physical function over four years.
Long-term use of painkillers for back pain is tied to an increased risk of erectile dysfunction.
Combination therapy with teriparatide and denosumab may be most effective in treating postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at risk for fracture.
Among patients with painful osteoporotic vertebral fractures, there is no benefit to vertebral body stenting over balloon kyphoplasty.