In non-diabetic patients, researchers have shown sirolimus-eluting stents to be more effective than paclitaxel-eluting stents, leading to better clinical outcomes. Some researchers believe that T2DM attenuates the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. This could influence the choice of stents, and has created a controversy.
Severe hypoglycemia is a complication of insulin use that occurs in 20% of insulin-treated patients on a monthly basis. A small number of these patients become unconscious or seize as a result of severe hypoglycemia. Hospitals are prepared to intervene, but often in the community, a Good Samaritan needs to reconstitute and injection dry powder formulations of subcutaneous and intramuscular glucagon for unconscious or seizing patients.
Despite the many glucose monitoring and insulin delivery devices that are available, many diabetics who use them remain uncontrolled and experience hypoglycemia. Researchers dream of the day that drug-device combinations will track diabetics' glucose levels and deliver appropriate insulin dose.
Leptin (an adipocyte-secreted hormone) has been an object of observation since 1994. Its levels in the body are roughly proportional to an individual's amount of adipose tissue. It seems to regulate energy homeostasis, decrease energy intake, and increase energy expenditure. From its discovery, researchers hoped that its manipulation could be useful clinically.