Early reports from the Safety and Appropriateness of Growth hormone treatments in Europe (SAGhE) project noted increased cardiac and cerebrovascular mortality in adults who were treated for stature problems as children. In addition, other studies have linked stroke risk to short stature in general, hypothesizing that shorter people have increased metabolic risks.
Endocrinologists generally see middle-aged people who have developed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) subsequent to overnutrition (or overeating) and weight gain. Most clinicians tend to forget that low caloric intake, or undernutrition, in the prenatal period or during a child’s formative years also seems to increase the risk of the T2DM later in life.
Approximately 2 million Americans live with limb loss, with approximately one-half of all amputations due to vascular disease, especially diabetes. When patients attach prostheses, the device causes stump compression and contact friction, exacerbated by humidity and moisture buildup. In patients who may already have vascular disease, diabetes, or malignancy, the consequences can be dire, leading to severe infection and the need for revision.