Few randomized clinical trials have been done to assess clinical prediction rules for patients with lower back pain, and the trials that have been done are of low quality and do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use.
The presence of retrolisthesis in patients undergoing decompressive surgery for a lumbar disc herniation may result in significantly worse lower back pain and physical function over four years.
Long-term use of painkillers for back pain is tied to an increased risk of erectile dysfunction.
Military personnel with acute lower back pain (LBP) who receive chiropractic manipulative therapy (CMT) in addition to standard medical care (SMC) show significantly improved scores for pain relief and physical functioning, compared to those receiving only SMC.
The management of adult spinal deformity (ASD) and selection of optimal fusion levels is incompletely defined.
Nonelderly, older adults with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) have a higher prevalence of diabetes and hypertension than those without stenosis.