Few randomized clinical trials have been done to assess clinical prediction rules for patients with lower back pain, and the trials that have been done are of low quality and do not provide sufficient evidence to support their use.
The presence of retrolisthesis in patients undergoing decompressive surgery for a lumbar disc herniation may result in significantly worse lower back pain and physical function over four years.
Long-term use of painkillers for back pain is tied to an increased risk of erectile dysfunction.
A genome-wide linkage scan has identified the chromosome 17p11.2-q11.2 region as the susceptibility locus for fibromyalgia.
Phase III study results show patients with chronic non-cancer pain and opioid-induced constipation (OIC) experienced improvements in spontaneous bowel movement frequency and other symptoms of OIC.
A literature review of randomized controlled trials and open-label studies of six months or longer duration finds good evidence that opioid therapy improves pain scores, with weaker evidence for its long-term effect on functional status.