This study evaluated whether exogenous insulin use to control blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes was associated with the development of hypertension by analyzing data obtained from a large national sample in Taiwan. Exogenous insulin use was shown to be a significant risk factor for hypertension development.
We assessed the histologic features of 526 carotid plaques from consecutive patients undergoing endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis and found a high prevalence of coronary-type plaque instability, with strong correlations between macrophage infiltration and both cap rupture and time since stroke. Temporal trends were much weaker after a transient ischemic attack than after a stroke, with a tendency for plaque features to persist for a longer period, suggesting heterogeneity in the underlying pathological mechanisms.
This is the largest study of excised carotid plaques to date. All patients were symptomatic. Although not all plaques could be analyzed for each category (which excluded 94 plaques from cap analysis), this remains the largest histological study of its kind.
Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a clinical condition characterized by altered myocardial function in the absence of coronary artery disease, hypertension, and valvular or congenital heart disease. Patients with this condition exhibit changes in cardiac structure that may be attributed to the direct effect of diabetes mellitus. The author discusses the mechanisms, risk factors, screening, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of cardiomyopathy in patients with diabetes.