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C. Diff Guidelines Effective in Predicting Severity for Kidney Disease Patients

The absolute SCr criterion correlated better with all-cause mortality than the relative increase in serum creatinine.

A recent update the guidelines for Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI) might allow clinicians to accurately predict viral severity in kidney disease patients.

In 2017, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) revised their C. diff infection severity classification criteria to include an absolute serum creatinine (SCr) value above the threshold of at least 1.5 mg/dL as opposed to a relative increase from baseline of at least 1.5 times the premorbid level.

A team, led by Travis J. Carlson, Department of Clinical Sciences, High Point University Fred Wilson School of Pharmacy, sought to best define kidney injuries as a CDI disease severity marker to make it easier to assess severe outcomes linked to CDI.

In the multicenter, cohort study, the investigators assessed adult hospitalized patients with a C. diff infection for the presence of an acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CDI severity using the 2010 and 2017 IDSA/SHEACDI guidelines.

The investigators sought primary outcomes of all-cause inpatient mortality.

In the final analysis, the investigators examined 770 C. diff infection episodes from a total of 705 patients aged 65±17 years (female, 54%; CKD, 36.5%; AKI, 29.6%).

In addition, 82 episodes (10.6%) showed discordant severity classification results because of the inclusion of more patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease in the severe disease category using an absolute SCr threshold criterion.

The absolute SCr criterion better correlated with all-cause mortality (OR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.76-9.28; P = 0.001) than the relative increase in SCr (OR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.62-2.89; P = 0.46).

The investigators found this corresponded with an increased likelihood of the 2017 CDI severity classification criteria to predict mortality (OR, 5.33; 95% CI, 1.81-15.72; P = 0.002) compared to the 2010 criteria ( OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.16-6.32; P = 0.02).

“Our findings support the 2017 IDSA/SHEA CDI severity classification criteria of a single pre-treatment SCr in future CDI guideline updates,” the authors wrote.

New data shows positive trends regarding C. diff infections and hospitalization within the last 10 years.

A team, led by Alice Y. Guh, MPH, identified cases of C. diff infections in stool specimens positive for C. diff in an individual at least 1 years old with no positive test in the previous 8 weeks in 10 US sites.

Overall, they identified 15,461 cases in 2011—10,177 healthcare-associated cases and 5284 community-associated cases. In 2017, they identified 15,512 cases—7973 healthcare-associated cases and 7539 community-associated cases.

The estimated national burden of infections was 476,400 (95% CI, 419,900-532,900) in 2011 and 462,100 cases (95% CI, 428,600-495,600) in 2017.

After accounting for NAAT use, the adjusted estimate of the total burden of C. diff infection decreased by 24% from 2011 through 2017 (95% CI, 6-36).

The study, “Assessment of Kidney Injury as a Severity Criteria for Clostridioides difficile Infection,” was published online in Open Forum Infectious Diseases.