Diabetic Nephropathy: Which Risk Factor is Most Strongly Associated?


Some risk factors for diabetic nephropathy can't be modified, but they support aggressive treatment to control hyperglycemia.

Without intervention, approximately 30% of patients with type 2 diabetes will progress to overt diabetic nephropathy and, after 20 years of nephropathy, approximately 20% develop ESRD. Poor glycmemic control is a significant contributing factor.

Which of the following other risk factors demonstrates the strongest association with development of diabetic nephropathy?

A. Sex
B. Race
C. Concurrent thyroid disease
D. Age
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