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The Educated Patient
ADHD: What Parents Should Know
For the parents of a child who has just been diagnosed with ADHD, this site will provide information about the causes of ADHD, such as chemical imbalances in the brain and environmental factors like toxins and cigarette smoke. A detailed list of symptoms is provided for each type of ADHD, inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive. The tips at the bottom of the page will help parents manage their child’s symptoms and enable them to provide a more structured, organized home life.
An excellent starting point for patients and parents looking for online information about ADHD, this site from the CDC provides numerous opportunities for site visitors to learn more. Reports on prevalence, information on the Project to Learn about ADHD in Youth (PLAY), and links to content covering peer relationships and risk of injury are provided. Of greatest use to patients and parents is the resources section, which provides links to the Family Guide to System of Care for Children with Mental Health Needs, and the US Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs.
Link Code: pn12229
The Children and Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD) organization has put together this site about ADHD, which begins by explaining the difference between a child’s inability to sit still and concentrate, a common problem for many children and adolescents, and ADHD, a diagnosable, neurobiological disorder. The site describes how the symptoms of ADHD are different in children and adolescents, and the typical problems that may arise for each age group. “School and AD/HD: Kindergarten through 12th Grade” discusses the first steps that parents can take when a child with ADHD is struggling in school. This section of the site also provides information about school-related learning disability laws, tips for working with a child’s teacher, improving behavior in school, and how to increase a child’s productivity while doing homework.
Attention Deficit Disorder Association (ADDA)
The mission of the ADDA is to “provide information, resources and networking to adults with AD/HD and to the professionals who work with them” in order to educate them on treatments, strategies, and techniques for treating ADHD. Membership provides users with helpful resources, such as information on ADDA’s annual national conference, access to the ADDA’s quarterly publication FOCUS,written tools like Guiding Principles for Coaching Individuals with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, teleclasses, and networking opportunities. Non-members can still access articles exploring topics in ADHD, such as family issues, school issues, and organization and time management.
Link Code: pn12212
ADHD in Adolescents and Adults: Recognizing the Signs, Optimizing Care
Expires:December 21, 2010
This activity will “provide participants strategies and reinforcement in dose titration, multimodal treatment, and long-term treatment adherence for patients with ADHD.”
ADHD: Managing the Continuum from Adolescence to Adulthood
Expires:December 27, 2010
In addition to reviewing the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents, this activity also goes over related medical and psychiatric comorbidities, such as depression, substance abuse, oppositional defiant disorder, and learning disabilities. The program discusses communicating with patients and their families and how to effectively cover all risks and benefits of ADHD treatment. By discussing these topics in adult patients, the program will provide physicians with tools for transitioning patients into adult care.
ADHD, Substance Use Disorders, and Psychostimulant Treatment: Current Literature and Treatment Guidelines
Expires:September 9, 2011
This activity focuses on the use of psycho-stimulant treatments in patients with ADHD who also have substance use disorders. The program discusses how to identify patients who are at a greater risk for substance use disorders, the controversy surrounding the use of psycho-stimulant treatment for these patients, and the mechanisms of action of these drugs and abuse potential. Participation in this activity will also help physicians recognize patterns of prescription drug abuse and enable them to minimize the risk of substance abuse disorder.
Getting to Goal for ADHD: Managed Care Interventions for the Continuum of ADHD Patients
Expires:February 28, 2011
Complete this activity for a greater ability to identify “ADHD as a treatable neurobiological disease within a broad patient population in managed care,” and a greater understanding of how managed care can strengthen your ability to provide appropriate therapy. Available management tools and techniques to improving outcomes and the HEDIS measure for ADHD treatment are also reviewed.
Link Code: pn12237
Effectiveness of a Behavioral Treatment Program for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Inattentive Type
Age/Gender Requirements:7-11 years (male/female)
Sponsor:National Institute of Mental Health
Purpose:To test the effectiveness of the Child Life and Attention Skills Program, a behavioral program that is “designed specifically for ADHD-I and combines life skills training for the child, teacher consultation, and parent training techniques adapted from ADHD-C treatments.”
Organizational Skills Training for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Age/Gender Requirements:8-11 years (male/female)
Sponsor:National Institute of Mental Health
Purpose:To evaluate if time management skills training for both children with ADHD and their parents will improve organizational, time management, and planning difficulties in children with the disorder.
Concurrent Validity of the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener for Children with ADHD
Journal:Child Neuropsychology (May 17, 2010)
Authors:Reddy L, Newman E, Pedigo T, Scott V
Purpose: To examine “the concurrent validity of a new computer-assisted ADHD screening system, the Pediatric Attention Disorders Diagnostic Screener (PADDS; Pedigo, Pedigo, & Scott, 2006) in relation to the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA; Greenberg, 1999), the Conner's Continuous Performance Test- II (CPT-II; Conners & MHS Staff, 2000), and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF; Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 2000) in three clinically referred samples of children 6 to 12 years of age.”
Results:Compared with the TOVA, CPT-II, and BRIEF scales, the PADDS “demonstrated strong concurrent validity between conceptually similar scales, providing initial evidence for the concurrent validity of the PADDS. Relative to other measures, the PADDS appears to have some unique scales designed to assess attention and various aspects of executive functioning.”
Link Code: pn12258
Detection of Feigned ADHD in College Students
Journal: Psychological Assessment (June 2010)
Authors:Sollman M, Ranseen J, Berry D
Purpose:To evaluate “the utility of ADHD symptom checklists, neurocognitive tests, and measures initially developed to detect feigned neurocognitive or psychiatric dysfunction (symptom validity tests [SVTs]),” as with “ADHD information readily accessible on the Internet, today's students are likely to be symptom educated prior to evaluation,” possibly resulting “in false-positive diagnoses, particularly when students are motivated to convey symptoms.”
Results:“All SVTs demonstrated very high specificity for the ADHD condition and moderate sensitivity to faking, which translated into high positive predictive values at rising base rates of feigning. Combining 2 or more failures resulted in only modest declines in sensitivity but robust specificity. Results point to the need for a thorough evaluation of history, cognitive and emotional functioning, and the consideration of exaggerated symptomatology in the diagnosis of ADHD.”
Link Code: pn122510
Guanfacine Extended Release in the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents
Journal:Drugs of Today (May 2010)
Authors:Connor DF, Rubin J
Purpose:To review the key characteristics and study findings of extended-release guanfacine and compare them to those of immediate-release guanfacine.
Results:“Extended-release guanfacine (Intuniv™) is a novel long-acting, once-daily formulation of guanfacine indicated for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 6 to 17 year old children and adolescents. In doses 1 to 4 mg/day, guanfacine extended release (GXR) significantly improves the symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity in ADHD youngsters compared with placebo. Because of different pharmacokinetics, GXR is not substitutable on a mg-for-mg basis with immediate release guanfacine. Although extended release guanfacine does not demonstrate clinically significant ECG changes, mild slowing of the heart rate and some lowering of SBP and DBP does occur and requires vital sign monitoring during treatment. Children with a clinically significant cardiovascular history are not eligible for GXR therapy.”
Link Code: pn122511
Single Versus Combination Medication Treatment for Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Age/Gender Requirements:7-14 years (male/female)
Sponsor:National Institute of Mental Health
Purpose:To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of either guanfacine or methylphenidate or a combination dose of both medications for the treatment of ADHD.