Diabetes Dialogue: 2024 ACP Type 2 Diabetes Recommendations

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Podcast

In this episode, hosts break down the latest type 2 diabetes recommendations from the American College of Physicians and offer their perspective on second-line therapies in T2D.

A reflection of the growing evidence base supporting the safety and efficacy of these classes in management of type 2 diabetes and related comorbidities, the American College of Physicians has released new recommendations in favor of SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists and against use of DPP-4 inhibitors as second-line therapies to metformin in adults with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control.

“As additional pharmacological treatments become available for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes, it’s critical for us to examine their effectiveness, the harms and benefits as well as costs in order to provide the best treatment for our patients,” said Carolyn J. Crandall, MD, MS, an internal medicine physician at the University of California Los Angeles School of Medicine and the chair of the Guidelines Committee.

Released on the first day of the ACP’s Internal Medicine Meeting 2024, the pair of recommendations reflect the findings from a systematic review and network meta-analysis and cost-effectiveness analysis assessing the value of these therapies as both monotherapies and in combination with metformin. Of note, the recommendations do not consider the effects of each class on glycemic parameters.

The recommendations from the ACP are as follows:

  • Recommendation 1: Add an SGLT2 inhibitor or GLP-1 receptor agonist to metformin and lifestyle modifications in adults with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control (strong recommendation; high-certainty evidence).
    • Use an SGLT2 inhibitor to reduce the risk for all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, progression of chronic kidney disease, and hospitalization due to congestive heart failure.
    • Use a GLP-1 agonist to reduce the risk for all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, and stroke.
  • Recommendation 2: Against adding a DPP-4 inhibitor to metformin and lifestyle modifications in adults with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control to reduce morbidity and all-cause mortality (strong recommendation; high-certainty evidence).

Attendees at this year’s Internal Medicine Meeting, Diana Isaacs, PharmD, an endocrine clinical pharmacist, director of Education and Training in Diabetes Technology, and codirector of Endocrine Disorders in Pregnancy at the Cleveland Clinic, and Natalie Bellini, DNP, program director of Diabetes Technology at University Hospitals Diabetes and Metabolic Care Center, discuss the ACP’s latest recommendations in a special ACP 2024 edition of Diabetes Dialogue: Technology, Therapeutics, & Real-World Perspectives.

Relevant disclosures for Dr. Isaacs include Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk, Sanofi, Abbott Diabetes Care, Dexcom, Medtronic, and others. Relevant disclosures for Dr. Bellini include Abbott Diabetes Care, MannKind, Sanofi, and others.

References:

  1. Qaseem A, Obley AJ, Shamliyan T, Hicks LA, Harrod CS, Crandall CJ. Newer pharmacologic treatments in adults with type 2 diabetes: A clinical guideline from the American College of Physicians. Annals of Internal Medicine. Published online April 19, 2024. doi:10.7326/m23-2788
  2. American College of Physicians. ACP issues clinical recommendations for newer pharmacological treatments of adults with type 2 diabetes. ACP issues clinical recommendations for newer pharmacological treatments of adults with Type 2 diabetes | ACP Online. April 19, 2024. Accessed April 19, 2024. https://www.acponline.org/acp-newsroom/acp-issues-clinical-recommendations-for-newer-pharmacological-treatments-of-adults-with-type-2.
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