Target: Diabetes • CAD/Angina
Profile the prevalence and risks of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in a population of coronary bypass patients and its impact on the perioperative and postoperative outcomes.
1. In the Lauruschkat study, resuscitation after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery was required for _____of patients with undiagnosed diabetes versus 1.5% of patients with diabetes and 1.7% of patients without diabetes.
2. The perioperative mortality rate was _____for patients with undiagnosed diabetes, compared with patients with and without diabetes.
d statistically identical
3. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients without diabetes in the Lauruschkat study had ________than patients with diabetes.
a lower high-density lipoprotein
b higher low-density lipoprotein
c higher ejection fractions
d lower stress hyperglycemia
4. Levetan and colleagues found that____ of 1034 patients hospitalized in an urban, tertiary-care teaching hospital were found to have undiagnosed diabetes on admission.
5. In Lauruschkat’s study, the percentage of CABG surgery patients with known diabetes was_____, while the prevalence of patients with undiagnosed diabetes mellitus was_____.
a 39.3%; 2.1%
b 35.6%; 3.2%
c 32.3%; 4.1%
d 29.6%; 5.2%
Target: Lipid Disorders • Stroke
Examine the relationship between high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and carotid plaque progression and the mechanisms by which HDL cholesterol counteracts plaque growth.
1. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol may exert its protective effects by
a indirectly buffering vessel injuries.
b improving the oxidation of lipoprotein.
c returning low-density lipoprotein (LDL) back to the liver from the atheroma.
d promoting the development of echogenic plaques.
Plaques that contain fewer cellular components, more connective tissue (collagen), and varying degrees of calcification are noted by
a high absorption of ultrasound energy
b high gray-scale mediam (GSM)
c low GSM
d a gray appearance on the ultrasound monitor.
3. Plaque growth was inversely associated with
b systolic blood pressure
c current smoking
d HDL cholesterol level
4. The plaques with a lower growth rate tended to become
a less echogenic
b less echolucent.
c more echogenic
d more echolucent.
5. ______ particles may transform plaques into more fibrotic lesions and thereby thwart their growth by removing ________ from the vessel wall.
a HDL cholesterol; LDL cholesterol
b LDL cholesterol; HDL cholesterol
c HDL cholesterol; cholesteryl ester
d HDL cholesterol; lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase
If you wish to take this test on line, please visit
and complete the post-test and evaluation form.