January 2015

Cerebral Microbleeds Post Transient Ischemic Attacks

January 26, 2015

Neurology

Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) following a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be a sign a patient is likely to have another stroke. All patients who have a TIA are at risk of a recurrence, but that risk can be modified by optimal treatment, Jae-Sung Lim, MD, MSc and colleagues report. In fact, 80% of those recurrences could be eliminated, Lim wrote in a study in JAMA Neurology. But that may not be the case with TIA patients who have CMBs

New Anticoagulants vs. Warfarin: Risks and Benefits

January 26, 2015

Neurology

Avoiding intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a major concern for physicians treating patients with anticoagulation drugs. Iatrogenic ICH related to anticoagulants occurs in 0.3% to 1.8% of patients a year who are taking warfarin.

Opioids for Low Back Pain

January 26, 2015

Neurology

Opioids can be effective in controlling back pain, but their use carries risk of complications, misuse, and abuse. Clinicians have to decide when it is a good idea to prescribe them and when it is not.

Study Examines Traveler's Diarrhea Causes, Prevention Methods

January 26, 2015

Gastroenterology

A review published in JAMA in January explored several factors surrounding traveler's diarrhea, a condition commonly encountered by people voyaging from a high-income to a lower- or middle-income country

Treatment Guidelines Updated for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

January 26, 2015

Gastroenterology

Assessing the quality of mounting pharmacological evidence, the American Gastroenterological Association (AGA) has updated guidelines on the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Gut Bacterium Implicated in Multiple Sclerosis Development

January 27, 2015

Gastroenterology

According to findings presented at the 2014 Probiotics Throughout the Lifespan Symposium, there may be a relationship between 2 types of gut bacterium and multiple sclerosis (MS) development.

Association between Asthma & Apnea, Study Finds

January 27, 2015

Pulmonology

As pulmonary issues like asthma become more prevalent in our population, the links to other potential comorbidities have also gained clarity. A recent study observed the connection between patients diagnosed with asthma and those potentially developing obstructive sleep apnea.

Acid-suppressive medication for Acute Stroke, Hospital-acquired Pneumonia

January 27, 2015

Pulmonology

For hospitalized patients, some stays are extended by comorbidities including pneumonia, which can present additional health concerns. A recent study looked at the effect of acid-suppressive medications for stroke patients in an effort to prevent them catching pneumonia as well.

Reasons Behind Adherence in Myocardial Infarction Patients

January 27, 2015

Cardiology

Adherence is more than just a patients' known responsibility to take medications – there are reasons why patients may not want to stick to their regimens, as Lisa Rosenbaum, MD, explored in the latest NEJM.

PTSD May Elevate Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Women

January 27, 2015

Psychiatry

JAMA Psychiatry has published a study ahead of print examining the relationship between PTSD and T2DM in Nurses' Health Study II participants. The study questioned whether PTSD increased the risk of T2DM among civilians, and the magnitude of change. The findings indicated a positive association.

Effects of Female Hormones on Cigarette Cravings

January 27, 2015

Psychiatry

Smoking rates were found to be higher in men than in women, but decreasing in both sexes – reports had indicated the rates may be increasing in young women. Previous studies have shown women become addicted to nicotine faster and have greater difficulty quitting smoking due to more intense cravings when stimulated by cues than men.

US Flu Season at Epidemic Threshold

January 27, 2015

Infectious Disease

The recent US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) surveillance report stated that this year's flu season has crossed the threshold for being considered an epidemic – that is, the proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (8.5%) through the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System was above the agency's epidemic threshold of 7%.

The Cryptococcus Neoformans Effect

January 27, 2015

Infectious Disease

A case study published in the Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine observed the effect of Cryptococcus neoformans on patients with already compromised immune systems.

Combining Statistics with Modern Medicine

January 30, 2015

Editor's Letter

Statistical analysis is essential to practicing modern medicine. Properly designed clinical trials are at the heart of Evidence-based medicine (EBM). The concept of EBM has evolved over the last 30 years from the work of Archie Cochran, an epidemiologist, who wrote a series of lectures in 1972 on the efficacy of medical services.