Statistical analysis is essential to practicing modern medicine. Properly designed clinical trials are at the heart of Evidence-based medicine (EBM). The concept of EBM has evolved over the last 30 years from the work of Archie Cochran, an epidemiologist, who wrote a series of lectures in 1972 on the efficacy of medical services.
The recent US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) surveillance report stated that this year's flu season has crossed the threshold for being considered an epidemic â€“ that is, the proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (8.5%) through the 122 Cities Mortality Reporting System was above the agency's epidemic threshold of 7%.
For hospitalized patients, some stays are extended by comorbidities including pneumonia, which can present additional health concerns. A recent study looked at the effect of acid-suppressive medications for stroke patients in an effort to prevent them catching pneumonia as well.
As pulmonary issues like asthma become more prevalent in our population, the links to other potential comorbidities have also gained clarity. A recent study observed the connection between patients diagnosed with asthma and those potentially developing obstructive sleep apnea.
Smoking rates were found to be higher in men than in women, but decreasing in both sexes â€“ reports had indicated the rates may be increasing in young women. Previous studies have shown women become addicted to nicotine faster and have greater difficulty quitting smoking due to more intense cravings when stimulated by cues than men.
Adherence is more than just a patients' known responsibility to take medications â€“ there are reasons why patients may not want to stick to their regimens, as Lisa Rosenbaum, MD, explored in the latest NEJM.
JAMA Psychiatry has published a study ahead of print examining the relationship between PTSD and T2DM in Nurses' Health Study II participants. The study questioned whether PTSD increased the risk of T2DM among civilians, and the magnitude of change. The findings indicated a positive association.
Avoiding intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a major concern for physicians treating patients with anticoagulation drugs. Iatrogenic ICH related to anticoagulants occurs in 0.3% to 1.8% of patients a year who are taking warfarin.
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) following a transient ischemic attack (TIA) may be a sign a patient is likely to have another stroke. All patients who have a TIA are at risk of a recurrence, but that risk can be modified by optimal treatment, Jae-Sung Lim, MD, MSc and colleagues report. In fact, 80% of those recurrences could be eliminated, Lim wrote in a study in JAMA Neurology. But that may not be the case with TIA patients who have CMBs
A review published in JAMA in January explored several factors surrounding traveler's diarrhea, a condition commonly encountered by people voyaging from a high-income to a lower- or middle-income country